What Was The Sykes Picot Agreement


At a meeting in a railway car in Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne on 19 April 1917, a provisional agreement was reached between British and French Prime Ministers David Lloyd George and Alexandre Ribot, as well as Italian Prime Minister and Foreign Minister Paolo Boselli and Sidney Sonnino, to settle the Italian interest in the Ottoman Empire, in particular Article 9 of the Treaty of London. [38] The agreement was necessary by the Allies to secure the position of the Italian armed forces in the Middle East. May 16 will mark the centenary of the agreement, amid the question of whether its borders can survive the region`s current fury. “The system that has been in existence for a hundred years has collapsed,” barham Salih, a former Iraqi deputy prime minister, said at the Sulaimani Forum in Iraqi Kurdistan in March. “We don`t know what new system will take its place.” More than a year after the agreement with Russia, British and French representatives, Sir Mark Sykes and François Georges Picot, drafted another secret agreement on the future prey of the Great War. Picot represented a small group determined to ensure control of Syria for France; For his part, Sykes asked the UK to compensate for the influence in the region. The agreement did not allow, to a large extent, the future growth of Arab nationalism, which the British government and army wanted to use at the same time for their advantage vis-à-vis the Turks. In addition, in a sign of British discontent with Sykes-Picot, Sykes wrote in August a “Memorandum on the Asia Minor Agreement” to support his renegotiation, to make the French understand that they “are doing a good job, that is, they should change their policy if they cannot make military efforts consistent with their policies.” After much discussion, Sykes was ordered to enter into an agreement or complement to Sykes-Picot (“Project Arrangement”) on the “future status of hejaz and Arabia,” which was reached until the end of September. [64] However, before the end of the year, the agreement still had to be ratified by the French government. [65] In the Sykes-Picot Agreement, concluded on 19 May 1916, France and Great Britain divided the Arab territories of the former Ottoman Empire into spheres of influence. In its intended area, it was agreed that each country can establish a direct or indirect administration or control, as they wish and as they see fit to agree with the Arab State or with the Arab confederation. Under Sykes-Picot, the Syrian coast and much of present-day Lebanon went to France; Britain would take direct control of central and southern Mesopotamia around the provinces of Baghdad and Basra. Palestine would have an international administration, because other Christian powers, namely Russia, were interested in this region.

The rest of the territory in question – a vast territory with syria today, Mosul in northern Iraq and Jordan – would have local Arab leaders under French surveillance to the north and Britons to the south. In addition, Britain and France would retain free passage and trade within the other`s zone of influence. The French elected Picot as French High Commissioner for the soon-to-be-occupied territory of Syria and Palestine. The British appointed Sykes political chief of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force. On April 3, 1917, Sykes met Lloyd George, Curzon and Hankey to receive his instructions on the matter, namely to keep the French on their side as they pushed towards a British Palestine. First Sykes in early May, then by chance, Picot and Sykes visited the Hejaz together in May to discuss the agreement with Fayçal and Hussein. [55]166 Hussein was persuaded to accept a formula that the French of Syria would follow the same policy as the British in Baghdad. As Hussein believed that Baghdad would be part of the Arab state, he was finally satisfied with this.